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交通


交通機関は、すべての旅行者が関心を持っていることです。ファーストクラスのジェット機での片道旅行から宿泊可能な手軽な貨物船まで、多くの交通手段があります。

項目[編集]

自動車を選ぶ[編集]

On some routes, many different vehicles can be considered. For example, from en:Copenhagen to en:Stockholm, flying might be fastest, while an intercity bus is cheapest, driving allows more baggage, and rail travel is the most comfortable (and at five hours on par with the plane, when going from downtown to downtown). Finally, cruising or yachting between these cities would take one or two days more than the other options, while being a greater experience than the destination itself.

Only the wealthiest can overlook costs, and only the most patient need no haste. Other concerns are safety, scheduling, environmental issues, medical conditions, and the amount of baggage needed.

Buses and planes may severely limit the amount of en:baggage and even charge for checked baggage. Trains and cruise ships usually have no nominal limit to the amount of luggage, though they require it to be carried by the travelling party. Even where checked luggage on trains exist, allowances are usually more generous than for aviation. Your own boat or a car may have even more – or more convenient – capacity for extraordinary amounts of luggage. Still think carefully about what you really need.

The schedule of a public carrier might be a limiting factor. While some airline services fly only once a week, a metro line might depart as often as every few minutes. With your own vehicle, this is usually not a problem, unless you need to use a ferry, or if roads are temporarily closed down. However, road tolls, speed restrictions and traffic congestion might vary by time of day, the day of the week, or by season.

The vehicle of choice might depend on the country or region. While the en:United States is - with limited exceptions - built for the car, en:Japan has a great rail network, and in the en:Netherlands, cycling is practical even for inter-city journeys.

飛行機で[編集]

View from the plane

On large distances (500 km or more), flying is usually the fastest mode of transportation. Crossing an ocean or continent will take days in any other ways, and flying is usually even cheaper in such cases. On the other hand flying generally involves airport transfer, and dealing with security checks and baggage issues other travellers might not have to face. Where en:high speed rail is available, it is often a faster option than the plane, though not necessarily always cheaper. Shop around and see what best serves your needs.

チケット[編集]

Purchasing airline tickets can involve a mind-numbing array of fare classes, date restrictions, and price options. Two travelers sitting next to one another on a plane have almost always paid different fares. Finding the cheapest route and best prices can be a challenge.

クラス[編集]

Airline travel varies from cramped economy cabins to large suites that may even offer a full-length bed. Prices vary according to class of service, but frequent flyer status and other methods offer ways of sometimes getting upgraded travel without the upgraded price.

世界一周[編集]

Several airlines offer round-the-world flights, with a number of stops on the way. If you want to see several locations far from home, this is sometimes the best way. Options and flexibility varies between the different schemes.

安全を確保する[編集]

Airport security has become more strict in the 21th century, and offers a host of hassles for travelers. Arriving at the airport in time to make it through security checks, carrying the proper documentation and avoiding transits through countries with strict security constraints are all considerations on a trip by air.

一般[編集]

Travelling at the controls of a small plane as a private pilot can be one of the most fulfilling travel experiences possible. You get to see the world from a perspective entirely different from the ground or from commercial aviation. Most parts of the world have some form of general aviation; in Western countries such as the United States and Europe small airports are everywhere. Costs are somewhat higher than commercial airline seats; travel time is less than by car but usually somewhat more than by airline. On the other hand, when the costs of operating a light plane are shared between the pilot and passengers, it can be a surprisingly economical way of getting around. Becoming a pilot can take a significant amount of time and money, but most will agree the rewards are outstanding; for most travel pilots the journey is the reward.

A few business travellers fly aboard corporate aircraft, small planes owned by their employers. A helicopter is a necessity for offshore oil platform operators and some mining and resource firms.

ブッシュプレーン[編集]

A few small communities in remote locations (such as en:Alaska or the Canadian High Arctic) rely on small aircraft to bring supplies or postal service; often these are scheduled runs in small aircraft (like those used for charter service or general aviation, some may even be float planes which land at sea) to expensive-to-reach points far from the beaten path. There are still some communities outside the arctic best or only reached by air, mostly in en:Australia and developing countries. The name stems from the "bush" meaning the sparsely populated areas in e.g. much of Africa.

チャーター便[編集]

Air charter is the official name for air taxi operations, for which national aviation regulators impose specific regulations for pilot qualifications and experience, safety, and maintenance.

Air charter companies fly point-to-point, at the time requested by hiring customers, so that customers don't need to wait in-line at major hub airports. Air charter companies often fly smaller aircraft with room for 3-9 (or more) passengers. Aircraft with more than 9 passengers start to fall into the "commuter" size range, subjecting them to extra requirements and costs. The VLJ (very light jet) aircraft being delivered by Eclipse Aviation and others typically seat 4-5 passengers, and offer a new set of choices for point-to-point flights.

鉄道で[編集]

Dining car

Travel by rail often invokes a past era, with tracks winding through mountains and forests, comforts including dining cars and sleeper cabins, and other amenities not available to air and motor travelers.

While heritage dating back to the 19th century can be found in Europe and some Asian countries (South Korea, China, Japan, Taiwan) as well, the en:high speed trains, which beat cars hands down in terms of speed, have nothing nostalgic about them, but rather, they are cutting-edge technologies and the pride of their creators. Although the price of a ticket might reflect that, they are often not more expensive than flying (and may end up being cheaper than driving) on short (less than 1,000 km) routes and the experience of whisking through picturesque landscapes at more than 300 km per hour (or 200 miles per hour) may well be worth the cost. As one famous slogan for one of the first high speed rail services said: flying at altitude zero. Just sit back and relax. Oh and the dining cars and even sleepers? They are still available for many high speed lines. High speed rail is also the safest mode of travel, as accidents on these lines are seen as a national disgrace in most countries and safety standards are tough. Some rail services make up part of a en:public transportation system.

Regardless of speed most trains around the world also offer more legroom than all but first class airline seats. Food (regardless whether cooked on board or from your lunch box) also tastes better aboard a train, as the lower air pressure and dry air in planes affects your taste buds.

For more in-depth information see:

  • en:Tips for rail travel – If you have never been on a train, look no further than this article
  • en:High speed rail – The fastest and usually most modern type of rail travel. Here the airlines get a run for their money as High speed rail is often the fastest way to get from A to B period.
  • en:Sleeper trains – A comfortable way to combine travelling with a place to sleep.
  • en:Urban rail – Love it or hate it, almost all self-respecting metropolises in the world have some form of it. Usually they are fast, cheap and reliable. Without these systems getting from A to B would be a nightmare for anybody but owners of helicopters
  • en:Amtrak – America's much laughed about intercity-rail operator is slowly coming into its own with a steady growth in passengers as well as the "crown jewel" Northeast Corridor (Boston-Washington) where trains are giving the airlines a run for their money
  • en:Rail travel in Europe – For one of the most extensive, cheapest and most user-friendly train networks
  • en:Rail travel in Japan – The original bullet trains. You get top speed, but you will have to pay top price more often than not.

船で[編集]

Cruise ferry cabin

Boat travel used to be the fastest way to travel around the world from ancient times until the railways developed in the 19th century.

フェリー[編集]

Ferries are all but essential to reach islands such as en:Ireland or en:Newfoundland, which otherwise would only be accessible by en:air travel. Ferries also sail along rivers and cross seas. Coastal ferries follow the shoreline providing a scenic and comfortable means or travel, or to supply the most remote outposts, small coastal villages with no intercity road network. Some ferries also carry cars and there are still a few ferries around that carry trains, though the rise of air travel and the increasing availability of tunnels and bridges have made those a rare sight in passenger transport.

クルーズ船[編集]

Cruise ships range in size from vessels holding a handful of passengers to floating cities that hold thousands of passengers and offer all of the amenities that one would expect of a luxury resort. They provide access to nice destinations and can sometimes be used to cross a sea or even ocean as part of a longer journey.

貨物船[編集]

A less crowded, sometimes cheaper, alternative for crossing a sea or ocean, not using airplanes or commercial cruise ships or ferries.

ヨット[編集]

Yacht chartering is the best kept secret in the holiday industry. It is where you hire a yacht (either a sailing yacht or a motor yacht) and sail in a different part of the world each year. As well as the flexibility it offers it can also be surprisingly excellent value for money, often working out cheaper than booking hotel rooms, especially if there are a good number of people going on holiday together. It also usually works out cheaper than owning your own yacht if you charter for up to six weeks a year. In order to charter a yacht you may need to demonstrate that you have a qualified skipper and at least one competent crew member. if you are not able to supply your own skipper (this is known as "bare-boat charter") you can pay to have one supplied, which is known as a "skippered" or "crewed" charter. Popular locations include en:Croatia, en:Greece, en:Seychelles, en:Turkey, en:Malaysia, en:Thailand, en:Indonesia, and the en:Whitsunday Islands. You could also try the Baltic Sea or the inner waterways of Western Europe.

Houseboat rental is an option in some regions, such as the Thousand Islands and the Kawarthas in Canada.

ヒッチハイク[編集]

Some have a yacht but lack a crew. On some routes this is a common occurrence, and you might get a memorable (seldom free) voyage across some body of water. Having experience or key skills is an advantage, but often the right attitude is enough. The downside is that finding the yacht can take some (or plenty) time, space is limited, and yachts are hardly the fastest option.

自動車で[編集]

運転[編集]

アメリカなどの一部の国では、車は旅行にほぼ不可欠なツールです。車は目的地の計画に十分な手荷物と柔軟性をもたらしますが、メンテナンス、保険、有効な運転免許が必要です。それらはまた、通常、高価な移動手段の1つであり、環境問題を引き起こします。

多くの場所では、唯一の選択肢ではありませんが、田舎や、混雑した街路から遠く離れたアウトドアライフでは、運転をすることが当然でしょう。

タクシー[編集]

タクシーはある場所からある特定の場所に行くために便利です。 ただし、特に高所得国では、コストがかかる可能性があります。 オートバイと人力車は別の移動方法です。

ヒッチハイク[編集]

ヒッチハイクは、安価ですが、時には危険な方法です。 ヒッチハイクには独自の規範と規則があり、一部の人にとっては効果的で楽しい旅行手段になる可能性があります。

  • ヒッチハイクの代替手段も考えておいてください。

自転車[編集]

Brompton bicycle with trailer cycle touring in Furka Pass, the Swiss en:Alps

Cycling trips can range from your daily commute or the ride to the grocer to adventures that last for months, with the cyclist using manpower to traverse the countryside. Some newer bicycles also offer assistance through an auxiliary electric motor, but on longer trips the recharging of the battery will almost certainly fall back on your muscle power, much like a hybrid car recharges its battery through recuperative breaking. While cycling can be frustrating in places that lack infrastructure for it, it can be a very rewarding way of seeing the landscape up close and getting you to places you would never have gotten to otherwise. City cycling offers a wider range than walking while still preserving the advantage of enabling you to stop and look around or enter any interesting place you might find without having to look for parking.

For more in-depth information see:

バス[編集]

Rarely the most glamorous or even the most comfortable way to get around, buses are often the cheapest option except walking, and indispensable in low income regions such as en:Central America or South East Asia. Almost any inhabited place on Earth has some form of bus service either local or inter-city, either every five minutes or once a month. While the bus ride is usually not the thing you write home about, knowing how to get from A to B is the first thing you should consider when planning your trip. And for some the journey is indeed the destination and even a ride in a battered up old school-bus can be reason to travel all by itself. Whatever there may be to say against bus travel, it is for sure one of the best ways to meet the locals and start a conversation. Brush up on the local languages or print out a [[会話集(英語).

モーターサイクル[編集]

Traveling by motorcycle enables you to enjoy the surroundings you travel through in at a completely different level than if you'd travel by car, while you can travel further and faster than on a regular bike.

ライドヘイリングサービス[編集]

en:Horse riding is a pastime in many countries, and remains the most practical mode of transportation in some areas.

Carriages and stagecoaches drawn by horses or other animals can be used as a recreational vehicle.

公共交通機関[編集]

London Underground Overground DLR Crossrail map

公共交通機関enは、バス、都市鉄道システム、またはケーブルカーやフェリーenなどのよりエキゾチックな乗り物です。これは通常、大都市を移動するための最も実用的な方法です。

普通、タクシーや車などより安いですが、快適さや信頼性は地域によって大きく異なります。

徒歩[編集]

クロスカントリースキーen、アイススケートen、そしてハイキングen は、早く移動することはできませんが、到着するととてもやりがいがあります。

役立つ本[編集]

トーマス・クック
ヨーロッパはじめ海外の鉄道時刻表を発行していた。 サイト.